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    My analysis of quantum mechanics vs general relativity


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    Join date : 2009-11-28
    Age : 31
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    My analysis of quantum mechanics vs general relativity Empty My analysis of quantum mechanics vs general relativity

    Post by celestra on Sat Jan 02, 2010 2:35 am

    Viewing the Universe as whole

    As a child grows up and starts to question life, he learns more about himself and his surroundings. He realizes that time teaches him to fix his mistakes. Principles that he created in his youth will change as he develops logical understanding. Few years later as he reaches adulthood his view on life will totally change from his view he had on mind from younger age. There is a turning point in life where everyone chooses a path to follow. Our views on life are not constant. As I would explain, they follow a path of a curvature. They are changing. The same way each of us has a different way of understanding things and that includes all subjects including physics. The way I understand how life operates is different from others and vice versa. As we know, physics is a very broad subject and it has different levels of complexity. Physics is the closest subject that explains how our universe operates. This field specializes in understanding of life and outer space mysteries. Everything is based on physics. There are few rules that we have to accept before understanding physics: such as factors that can be neglected in calculations or are hard to solve using our current methods. Why? Because by excluding them we are able to solve the problem easier, but it doesn’t mean it is accurate. As an example, let’s take the problem of projectile motion, throwing a baseball. In Physics NYA, we neglected air drag, magnum force, spin and lift. These factors contribute to the motion of the baseball but it is hard for us to interpret those aspects in calculations. We are not able to solve a system of equations with too many unknowns in high school. We were not introduced to calculus yet. Only in College we can grasp more information on how to use derivates, matrices to solve more complex problems that involve more equations and more unknowns. Our brain can absorb information simultaneously and that is why we take years to develop a solid understanding of physics. I always asked myself why the society chose this way of teaching population physics. With the help of new technology, scientists are able to explore the capabilities of our brain. They state that our brain is capable of absorbing more information than a computer with the fastest processor. Our human brain is more powerful than a machine. Although without technology we would not be able to explore atoms or outer galaxies, we should not forget that a computer is a mere machine without a brain or ability to reason. We do have the ability to reason! As one goes deeper into the subject, individual realizes that physics is more of deeper subject that not only requires math and solving problems but also being able to imagine the problem within one’s mind. Is a computer capable of doing it? NO. It only follows our orders. It cannot acquire external information. Maybe only if we program the machine to our own expectations. Physics is connected to imagination. Technology evolves as our human minds evolve. It is a chain that is bounded. How did all physicists learn about our universe? Of course they imagined and tried to create some theories to explain the mysteries of our universe.

    General relativity vs. Quantum Mechanics
    There are two pillars upon which fundamental physics is based on. One of them is Einstein’s general relativity, which provides theory for understanding the universe on the largest scales: stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies. The other pillars are quantum mechanics which introduces the understanding the universe on the smallest of scales: molecules, atoms, subatomic particles, quarks. During many years physicists have been researching and experimenting to confirm which one of them is correct. Through years of research, physicists have experimentally confirmed the accuracy of these theories. But these theories lead to a disturbing conclusion: As they are currently formulated, general relativity and quantum mechanics cannot both be right. They are mutually incompatible. The reason why they are incompatible is, because both of these theories are either used to examine small things (light, atoms) or big things (galaxies and stars) but not both at the same time.They require one another for the theory to make sense. In fact there is a tension between these theories and scientists are trying to combine them into one ultimate theory. So far string theory is discussed, but not enough of proof is found experimentally. Universe is huge but is composed of small particles that require both quantum mechanics and general relativity. The ultimate theory will open up new doors to the progression of humankind.

    Unification of quantum and relativity
    Albert Einstein spent his 30 years of life of searching on how to combine the 4 fundamental forces of nature into one single theory. String theory might be the answer. For centuries, scientist has pictured an atom and the particles as tiny balls. String theory proclaims that at every bit of matter is a tiny vibrating strand of energy called a string. They believe that these strings are the key to unify the world of the large and small into one single theory. So far no experiments can prove that they exist. The theory goes beyond human understanding and the use of imagination and cognitive thinking is crucial.

    In physics course, we are taught that atoms are composed of protons in the nucleus, neutrons and electrons. An atom is basically a combination of these particles. Everything that exists in this universe, chair, human being, animals, stars, planets are all composed of atoms. It is essential to understand what an atom is and what is it composed of. The neutrons and protons are joined or glued together by the strong force. Electrons play a strong role in the movement of the universe. Electrons are located on orbits and they move only within the orbit. If an electron gets excited, or some energy falls on it, the electron jumps from high orbit to lower by releasing energy in form of color or heat in oscillation. That energy is propagated in form of a wave. Electrons might also absorb some energy and jump from higher to lower or vice versa. The oscillation of electrons is very important in physics, chemistry and in all other fields related in examination of the Universe. The movement of electrons enables to create different phenomena in this universe. The origins of our existence are hidden in the electrons, neutrons and protons. Everything that occurs in this world is basically oscillations of electrons. So how come we cannot see those waves?

    Perception is not reality
    Our eyes can only detect a certain percentage of waves coming from our surroundings and our brain interprets those waves in form of pictures. Our eyes can only reach or catch from 200nm to 500nm. This means that our eyes are able to perceive visible light. Within the electromagnetic spectrum there are also infrared waves can be seen as heat, ultraviolet seen as radiation of the waves coming from the sun, microwaves and radio waves. The shorter the wavelength of the electrons, the stronger the energy it emits and the more dangerous the waves become and more unlikely for us to see. If one gets exposed to gamma rays or x rays several times, they can affect negatively our health. Waves can travel through vacuum, as for example, our body. Once a wave reaches our body, if it contains a lot of energy and oscillates fast it can destroy our health or damage us severely. It is interesting to know that everything around us is in fact waves traveling at high speeds. Our eyes can only see a part of those wavelengths, and in consequence it limits our eyes to understand beyond the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum contains wavelength of long frequencies that our eyes are capable to detect. So what if what we see is not the real world? What if reality differs from what our eyes perceive? Quantum mechanics asks such questions, but there are no certain answers. We live in a world where we only perceive a small amount of reality. Some animals are created with more advanced abilities or visions than us. For example bees can sense ultraviolet rays and some insects can only sense someone’s presence by the shadows or heating of the body. In order for us to understand universe, our five senses will not be sufficient, we will have to think beyond the visible line spectrum and find some other necessary materials or instruments to find some more evidence of the unknown. Quantum physics looks at the universe from several perspectives. There are several rules that one has to obey in order to be able to grasp some of the knowledge. The first and most essential rule is being able to use imagination. One of Einstein’s quotes was: “Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand”. Einstein’s ideas during his time were totally different from scientific point of view. Although in his days, people thought that he was crazy or his theories did not make sense at first, but he soon proved with experiments and mathematical equations that his ideas were genuine and correct. Now everyone follows his findings and equations. He was expanding his knowledge by using his imagination combined with physics. In order to be able to understand the universe, we should always combine our knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, philosophy, business, biology, and other areas of study. With this in mind, one can succeed in reaching the impossible or discovering something beyond current human comprehension. Einstein succeeded in his theories and became one of the most influential physicists that ever existed. Of course he achieved it by thinking beyond others. He was just using the part of the brain that people don’t use too often.

    he bizarre behavior of light

    To understand some of the key terms that I will use, the property of light must be explained. Light is composed of elementary particles called photons. More than 300 hundred years ago Newton proclaimed that the light consisted of stream of particles. It is also known that light travels in packets called quanta. This means it travels in whole numbers. However, many of his colleagues disagreed with him and argued it is a wave. Later on many scientists such as Young, Einstein and Planck showed that Newton was wrong. If we shot small particles through a slit we will see the pattern that they went through the slit and their hit on the screen. If we add up another slit we expect the same effect on the screen, particles being randomly shot and hit the screen. If we look at the behavior of waves, we send out water through the two slits and on the screen it shows an interference pattern. What we observe is the pattern of the waves. Where the waves cancel out we do not observe any intensity. What is weirder is the experiment with the light. If we shot electrons, small number of matter through one slit, we will observe a single band. On the screen we will see where the electrons hit. Once another slit is added we predict to observe a duplicate band, but what actually happens there will be an interference pattern like in the wave experiment. We fired matter through and we get a pattern of waves. Physicists were confused and thought that maybe because the electrons are send together they bounce off each other and create that pattern. It was decided to shot an electron one at a time. At the end of the experiment, an interference pattern was observed! The conclusion is that a single electron leaves as a particle and divides into a wave and passing through t he slits interferes with itself and hits the wall like a particle. It seemed impossible for scientist to believe so they thought to put a measuring device that will check from which slit the electron passes through. To their astonishment, as soon as they tried to peek the electron was following the pattern of a particle. It passed through one slit, not both anymore. How is it possible that electron choose to behave as a particle? Is matter particle or wave? What is a wave? Amazingly, the observer influenced the motion of the electron. As we can see light is very mysterious. It is amazing! We have to be able to understand whether it is a particle or a wave because it changes many equations and theories. Quantum mechanics explains that atoms behave in a chaotic way. Scientists who think they understand quantum, in reality don’t understand at all. It is a field where imagination plays a huge role and it is based on theory and manipulation of ideas. Quantum also is based on probability. Once we peeked on the electron it either chooses one slit or the other. It was not certain which way it choose to travel. What business does probability have in the formulation of fundamental physics? However Einstein, accepted the wave like behavior of electrons, he still considered them as particles with a known position and velocity, although in quantum it is wrong. It turns out that an electron does not have a known velocity or position. It might be located where it is or somewhere else, which means I might be located in my room or not in my room at all. If I close the lights and hide my cat in the room, I don’t know where the cat is located because it might be anywhere in the room. I only find out the answer once I open up the lights. This means electrons do not have also a specific location. I might be located in my room, but at the same time not. This puzzles scientists until now. Our universe might have many dimensions that we are consciously unaware of. So far, scientists have found that there exist 11 dimensions. Currently we are able to perceive only four, 3Dimensional and time.

    The four fundamental forces

    Let’s look at the beginning of the quest for the unknown: the forces acting on matter. During past few hundred years, physicists have accumulated evidence of interactions between objects and materials, ex. Balls can be hit with bats, bungee jumpers can throw themselves earthward, magnets can keep trains suspended above metallic tracks. They found out that all the interactions are reduced combinations of four fundamental forces that act on matter: gravitational, electromagnetic force, weak force and strong force. General relativity explains the force of gravity and quantum mechanics explains all the other remaining forces. Strong force is responsible for gluing the neutrons and protons inside of atoms. Weak force is responsible for the radioactive decay and electromagnetic force produces light and magnetic attraction. General relativity explains the force of gravity and quantum mechanics explains all the other remaining forces.

    Explanation of gravity: General relativity

    Gravity is responsible to keep planets orbiting around the sun as well as keeping our feet firmly to the earth. To measure gravitational force, the mass of an object is important. This force is also very mysterious and there is no exact explanation on what is gravity. Although Newton did discover the law of gravity, he could not explain how gravity works. Newton’s theory lacks in one important respect, which is what gravity is exactly. How it is those two bodies that are physically separate from each other, miles apart away influence their motion? Newton was unaware himself in this question. He succeeded in developing equations with accuracy and explains the effects, but he never offered an insight into gravity. This is where Einstein came into play. In 1907, while sitting at his desk in Switzerland, he was thinking on developing a new theory of gravity- an approach that would fill the gap in Newton’s theory. He observed light in order to explain what gravity is. At the age of 26, he stated that the velocity of light is like a cosmic speed limit that nothing in the universe can exceed. In order to explain further, let’s imagine a big catastrophe. If we imagine that the Sun will disappear from the solar system, which means it might evaporate, we should look at the effect of Sun on the planets. According to Newton’s theory predicts that with the destruction of the Sun, the planets would immediately fly out of their orbits. Newton explained that the gravity was a force that acts instantaneously across any distance, so we would immediately feel the effect from the Sun’s destruction. Einstein saw a big problem with the theory, a problem that arose with his work with light. Einstein stated that the light does not travel instantaneously and it would take 8 minutes from the Sun for the light to travel and reach us. How can the Earth be released from orbit before the darkness from Sun’s disappearance reaches our eyes? Since he proved that nothing travels faster than speed of light that means also that the Earth wouldn’t be able to be released from the orbit. The darkness would reach Earth first. Now we should think why the planets have the orbits that they do. Einstein was bothered by this and for 10 years he was thinking of a new way of explaining gravity. He thought of space as 3D and time as the 4th dimension and thought that the planets move as they do along the geometric grid or space fabric . Its as if the Sun on its own creates a grid for other planets. All huge masses produce that space grid. This fabric would be stretched like a trampoline for heavy objects. This warping of space time is what creates what we feel as gravity. This means that Newton’s theory was wrong and that Earth will move in orbits around the Sun because of the Sun’s presence in the geometrical space grid that causes the curvatures. The heavier the objects the more wrapping it causes and attracts more masses. If we recapitulate again the experiment with the disappearance of Sun, we will be able to observe that when the Sun disappears, the gravitational disturbance that results from the Sun will form a wave that travels across the special fabric or grid. We would only feel the effect once the wave would reach our planet. This new theory is called General Relativity.

    My proposition of ideas
    I do agree with the theory but I was thinking what if there could be an object traveling faster than speed of light. As an object increases in speed, its mass increases. Speeding up an electron will increase it’s mass. As it approaches the speed of light 300 000km/s , the mass will become infinitely large. It would need all the energy from the Universe to propel it. The only way for something to travel faster than speed of light would be by creating a new way of propulsion. It makes perfect sense. What about matter-antimatter reactor? I think the problem arises more in mathematics than in engineering. If we could somehow rearrange the math equations we might end up with different results. But it is hard to play with math and understanding it at the same time. It’s hard to follow quantum mechanics equations. I looked in many books quantum mechanics equations, and by observing the writing I realized that scientists randomly discovered some equations plugged in their own numbers and told everyone that their theories are correct. I believe that majority of the equations have their own flaws. Like the example with the gravity. It was missing the explanation of the definition. It was not given in the equations. Therefore, in this paper I did not include those crazy equations that would explain universe. Everyone knows Einstein’s famous equation E=mc^2, mass can be converted into energy and vice versa. What I wanted to point out is that if we find a way of arranging those equations properly without confusing ourselves we might discover something new. So although we believe right now that there is a speed limit, maybe in future our view on light might change when one will look deeper into the details of light. The principle that nothing can go faster would mean that most science-fiction movies or tales of interstellar travel are impossible. At that speed it would take us generations to reach closest galaxies. We shouldn’t forget that ideas that might seem impossible can be proven as possible. Who would of thought that there objects follow a space grid? Einstein proposed this idea that seems totally realistic to others. As I said, imagination is the key to success. It is more than knowledge. The science fiction might carry some truth within it, as any joke carries some truth. These days, scientists are coming up closer on finding out how in some situations; light might be traveling faster than that. There were 2 experiments that showed that light might travel faster than the limit, but both of the experiments are still under research. Many scientists are thinking that theoretically it is possible to travel faster. I was thinking about a different idea. As I explained in the general relativity, what causes the motion of planets or objects is the space curvature. What if we would build a machine that would try to distort the grid more than the speed of light itself. As we know the gravity is the result of the curvature caused by energy or mass, in our case Earth. From all the 4 forces , gravity is the weakest one. Why not using one of the forces to accelerate a spaceship? It will be more powerful than the gravity and might exceed the speed of light. I don’t know if that sounds realistic, but it’s all about how to manipulate the grid, if Einstein was correct in his theory. Another idea: we know that anything that contains energy has positive and negative energy (ex. proton and aniproton). As matter forms it has to be formed from positive and negative at the same time. There is a mutual relationship. So what if we use more negative energy than positive energy, since majority of the Universe constitutes of dark matter or antimatter. Only few percent is composed of light that we observe. So why do we bother using light as a source of propulsion. We might try to think of ideas how antimatter would come into play. Although scientists state that it is impossible to store antimatter because it has to be in a container and not touching the walls. Let’s think about it in the terms of particles. By accumulating antiprotons they will repel each other, because particles of the same sign repel each other, so it will require strong magnetic field to contain them. This means there has to be some sort of field that will keep the particles together. It is similar to what glues protons and neutrons, the weak force. So
    I like to analyze physics and sometimes I come up with some ideas that might lead somewhere. I proposed one that I will try to explain. I was thinking what if we would be able to create a machine that would run on dark energy or just energy and create a distortion or a wave on the grid that would occupy a closed surface of space. The idea is that if we accelerate the material faster than speed of light, the movements of electrons create electric and magnetic field within that space frame of the machine only that will create those specific wavelengths or so called distortions. It is something similar to a conductor. We would be concerned what happens within the machine only. This would imply that the machine itself will occupy a specific space. The space which it occupies would play a role of a shield or as boundaries of the motion of the machine. Everything would happen within that space more specifically on the surface of that shield or boundary. Which means the surface of that shield would affect the surroundings. But what stays inside will not disperse outside. So it must be a closed surface. The curvature would happen also on the surface that will have a form of a wave. I’m trying to compare this to a string for example. The potential energy that you store inside of the string stays there unless you release the string, the energy will turn into kinetic energy with a specific speed. This would happen to that shield also. The movements or chemistry between atoms would occur inside of the space frame and the result of the mechanism would happen on the surface that would bend the space grid. Although the more mass the more energy it needs to propel, I was thinking of decreasing the mass of the machine so it would require less energy for that amount of mass to accelerate. It would exceed in this way the speed of light. The machine would not be huge either. I’m proposing another idea on how it would be possible to have a machine of small size. If we look around ourselves, everything is composed of atoms. These atoms as we know are composed of protons and neutrons inside of the nucleus and electrons orbiting around the nucleus. There sure is some space between the nucleus and electrons. What is happening within the distance between those particles? The distance might be kilometers although the atoms are concentrated together. The radius of the atom is small comparing to the object. But the material is composed of millions or billions of atoms who radius distance ranges. We might add them together to see how far they can reach. It seems logical to me that we could fit a huge machine into a small space by increasing the volume without changing the size of the object. The manipulation of space-time or nanotechnology is required to do so. So there are two issues: the increasing of volume without increasing the size and also the radius or distance between the protons, neutrons and the orbits of electrons. This is only a general idea that I’m thinking of. I’m sure there are more trivial factors that would make this proposition hard to design, but I’ll try in the future to work on the idea more detailed.

    Quantum mechanics and general relativity are two different theories that have to be reunited in order to explain our Universe. In my paper I was not able to cover all my ideas, but I tried to compress all the most important information into one research paper. This research changed my view on life completely. Not only I was able to understand physics from a different perspective, I found something that I’m fascinated and would like to pursue in my studies in the future. I strongly believe that one day both of the theories will be reunited. It would be a huge step of humankind towards a better future, financial prosperity and change of lifestyle.

    This essay was written by me in College about quantum mechanics vs general relativity. It briefly explains the differences and my own thoughts about these topics.
    Ive made an extensive research to be able to summarize my work. Anyone who enjoys physics will like this. Let me know

      Current date/time is Sun Dec 15, 2019 6:36 am